Southern Leyte has a total land area of 173,480 hectares or 1,743.8 sq. km., which corresponds to 8.1 percent of the total area of Eastern Visayas. It has the second smallest land area, next to Biliran among the six provinces in Region VIII. 

The province is composed of the mainland and four islands. The biggest is the Panaon Island that includes the municipalities of Liloan, San Francisco, Pintuyan, and San Ricardo. This is followed by the island Municipality of Limasawa, the island barangays of San Pablo and San Pedro of the Municipality of Hinunangan.

Eleven major water bodies in the province have numerous small rivers that help drain excess water from the land toward the sea. The province has one proclaimed watershed, the Hinabian Lawigan Watershed Reserve under Proclamation Number 107 dated November 23, 1992 with an area of 4,536.30 hectares. It is located in St. Bernard, Hinunangan, and Silago where the Lawigan River belongs.

The province has one major lake, Lake Danao, located between the municipalities of Anahawan and San Juan; said lake serves as one of the tourist attractions in the province. A hot and cold spring, Mainit Spring in Anahawan, is famous for its therapeutic value.

Southern Leyte’s three bays serve as major fishing grounds in the province, these are: Sogod Bay, Cabalian Bay, and Hinunangan Bay. According to the Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office-Coastal Fisheries Resources Management Unit (PENRO-CFRMU), there are 47 declared marine-protected areas in the province duly supported with barangay and municipal ordinances.