The town of Malitbog, Southern Leyte came into existence in the early part of the 18th century as proven from the enscription on the stone walls of the ruins of the watchtowers (baluarte) located equidistant to the Roman Catholic Church. One is found south of the Poblacion in Barangay Caaga and the other in Barangay Abgao north of the Poblacion which were constructed in the year 1820.
The town of Malitbog was created on December 14, 1849 and was later reorganized under the provisions of the Maura Law of 1893. The territorial limits covered nineteen kilometers to the south of the Poblacion including the island of Limasawa.)
During the American regime, the town was reorganized under the provisions of Act No. 82 passed by the Second Philippine Commission in 1900. This act was known as the Municipal Code and the first Municipal President of Malitbog was Fransico Escaño. In 1957, during the incumbency of President Carlos P. Garcia, several barrios in the southern portion of Malitbog including the island of Limasawa was separated from Malitbog to form the municipality of Padre Burgos. San Isidro previously known as Santiago thru act of Congress 5777 and further amended by presidential Decree No. 134 was also separated from Malitbog and is now called Tomas Oppus.